اتاقک‌های رشد گیاهی برای مطالعات فضایی

نوع مقاله: علمی- ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگاه هوافضا، گروه فیزیولوژی هوافضایی

2 استادیار، پژوهشگاه هوالفضا، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری

چکیده

کشت گیاهان در فضا، نقش مهمی‌در سیستم پشتیبان حیات برای تولید غذا و اکسیژن، کاهش دی‌اکسید‌کربن و دفع آب‌های زائد دارد. همچنین، گیاهان در فضا می‌توانند اثرات مثبت روانی برای فضانوردان داشته باشند. فضا دارای شرایط منحصر به فردی برای مطالعات زیستی است. نمونه‌های زیستی در فضا با تنش‌های گوناگونی از جمله بی‌وزنی، تشعشعات، ارتعاشات، میدان‌های مغناطیسی و میکرو‌ارگانیسم‌ها مواجه‌اند. برررسی اثر این تنش‌ها بر موجودات زنده برای مأموریت‌های طولانی مدت انسان به فضا، پیشرفت تکنولوژی و علوم از اهمیت به‌سزایی برخوردار است. برای ارسال نمونه‌های زیستی گیاهی به فضا نیاز به طراحی و ساخت تجهیزات رشد گیاهی است. این سیستم‌ها در ابتدای مطالعات فضایی طراحی و ساختار ساده‌ای داشتند و سپس در طی پروازهای متمادی پیشرفته‌تر شدند. بررسی این سیستم‌ها از نظر شکل ظاهری، سیستم نوری، گردش غذایی، سیستم تهویه و دما از اهمیت به‌سزایی برخوردارند. این مقاله سیستم‌های کشت گیاهی به‌کار گرفته شده در ایستگاه‌های فضایی سالیوت، میر، شاتل‌های فضایی و ایستگاه‌های فضایی بین‌المللی را مورد بررسی قرار می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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