Document Type : Scientific extension

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Aerospace University Complex, MalekAshtar University،Tehran، Iran

2 , M.Sc. Student, Aerospace University Complex, MalekAshtar University of Technology، Tehran، Iran

Abstract

The preliminary estimation of the weight at the conceptual design stage of the turbofan engine is one of the most important stages in designing the turbine gas engines. Hence, in this paper, the methods of preliminary estimation of the turbofan engine weight and then the parameters required for the implementation of each method are discussed. The statistical society in which information about the weight of sixty-four turbofen is presented. Therefore, various methods for estimating the weight of a engine are used to calculate the weighted information obtained from the statistical processing, the comparison and the weight of the engines. Finally, the results of this experiment are compared to the actual engine weight. Based on the results obtained, among the various methods, the error rate is the lowest error in the NASA weight estimation method, which is about 4.8%. In the following, based on the diagrams obtained from this comparison, we examine the effect of different parameters on the weight of the turbofan engine (the initial estimation of the weight is based on the weight of the engine for the state in which the engine is constant but the design of the aircraft is changed.) In the initial estimation method the weight is based on the engine components, allowing the design and weight of each unit separately, hence the design of new engines more than it is used.

Keywords

[1]  Ravi, B., Deo, J., Starnes, H., Richard, Jr., and Holzwarth, C., "Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications," Paper presented at the RTO AVT Specialists’ Meeting on “Low Cost Composite Structures”, held in Loen, Norway, 7-11 May 2001.
[2]  Lolis, P., Development of a Preliminary Weight Estimation Method for Advanced Turbofan Engines, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Craneld, 2014.
[3]  Whitehead, L. T.  and  Brown.,  J., “A mechanical design for a lightweight turbo-jet engine and the variation of engine weight with size, “National gas turbine establishment, Memorandum M.177, August 1953.
[4]  Pennington, W.A., “Choice of engines for aircraft”, Shell Aviation News, January 1959,  pages 14-19.
[5]  Guha, A., Boylan, D. and Gallagher, P., “Determination of optimum specic thrust for civil aero gas turbine engines: A multidisciplinary design synthesis and optimisation”, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 227, No.3, 2012.
[6]  Svoboda, C., “Turbofan engine database as a preliminary design tool”, Journal of Aircraft design, Vol.3, 2000, pp.17-31.
[7]  Raymer, D. P., “Aircraft design: A conceptual approach”, AIAA, 1989.
[8]  Jenkinson, L. R., Simpkin, P. and Rhodes, D., Civil Jet Aircraft Design, Butterwoth-Heinemann, 1999.
[9]  Daly, M., editor. Jane's aero-engines. 28 rd Ed, IHS Janes, September 2010.
[10]  Torenbeek., E., “Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design”, Martinus Nijhoff publishers, 1975.
[11]  Clavier, J., Aero gas turbine engine design project (AVIC). Ultra high bypass ratio (12-14) study, (Master's Thesis), University of Craneld, 2008.
[12]  Gerend, R. P. and Roundhill, J. P., "Correlation of gas turbine engine weights and dimensions," In Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, AIAA,Vol. 669, 1970, pages 1-7.
[13]  Colmenares Quintero, R.F.,  Techno-economic and enviromental risk assessment of innovative propulsion systems for short-range civil aircraft, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Craneld, April 2009.
[14]  Sagerser, D. A., Lieblein, S. and Krebs,  R. P., “Empirical expressions for estimating length and weight of axial-ow components of VTOL powerplants," Technical Report TM X-2406, NASA, December 1971.
[15]  Pera, R.J., Onat, E., Klees, G. W. and Tjonneland, E., “A method to estimate weight and dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines." Vol. 1, Method of analysis nal report Technical Report NASA-CR-135170, NASA, 1977.
[16]  G. W. Klees and L. Fishbach, H., “Aircraft engine weight estimation method," Proceedings of the thirty-seventh annual conference of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers, number 1248. SAWE, May 1978.
[17]  Onat, E. and Tolle, F.F.,  “An extension of engine weight estimation techniques to compute engine production cost ,“Technical Report N62269-78-C-0286, Naval Air Development Center, 1979.
[18]  Hale, P.L., “A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines ,“Technical Report NASA-CR-168049, NASA - Garrett turbine engine company, 1982.
[19]  Tong, M.T., Halliwell, I. and Ghosn, L. J., “A computer code for gas turbine engine weight and disk life estimation, “Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol.126, No. 2, 2004, pp.265-270.
[20]  Tong, M. T. and Naylor, B. A., “An object-oriented computer code for aircraft engine weight estimation," In Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Vol. 1, 2008, pages 1-7.
[1]  Ravi, B., Deo, J., Starnes, H., Richard, Jr., and Holzwarth, C., "Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications," Paper presented at the RTO AVT Specialists’ Meeting on “Low Cost Composite Structures”, held in Loen, Norway, 7-11 May 2001.
[2]  Lolis, P., Development of a Preliminary Weight Estimation Method for Advanced Turbofan Engines, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Craneld, 2014.
[3]  Whitehead, L. T.  and  Brown.,  J., “A mechanical design for a lightweight turbo-jet engine and the variation of engine weight with size, “National gas turbine establishment, Memorandum M.177, August 1953.
[4]  Pennington, W.A., “Choice of engines for aircraft”, Shell Aviation News, January 1959,  pages 14-19.
[5]  Guha, A., Boylan, D. and Gallagher, P., “Determination of optimum specic thrust for civil aero gas turbine engines: A multidisciplinary design synthesis and optimisation”, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 227, No.3, 2012.
[6]  Svoboda, C., “Turbofan engine database as a preliminary design tool”, Journal of Aircraft design, Vol.3, 2000, pp.17-31.
[7]  Raymer, D. P., “Aircraft design: A conceptual approach”, AIAA, 1989.
[8]  Jenkinson, L. R., Simpkin, P. and Rhodes, D., Civil Jet Aircraft Design, Butterwoth-Heinemann, 1999.
[9]  Daly, M., editor. Jane's aero-engines. 28 rd Ed, IHS Janes, September 2010.
[10]  Torenbeek., E., “Synthesis of Subsonic Airplane Design”, Martinus Nijhoff publishers, 1975.
[11]  Clavier, J., Aero gas turbine engine design project (AVIC). Ultra high bypass ratio (12-14) study, (Master's Thesis), University of Craneld, 2008.
[12]  Gerend, R. P. and Roundhill, J. P., "Correlation of gas turbine engine weights and dimensions," In Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, AIAA,Vol. 669, 1970, pages 1-7.
[13]  Colmenares Quintero, R.F.,  Techno-economic and enviromental risk assessment of innovative propulsion systems for short-range civil aircraft, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Craneld, April 2009.
[14]  Sagerser, D. A., Lieblein, S. and Krebs,  R. P., “Empirical expressions for estimating length and weight of axial-ow components of VTOL powerplants," Technical Report TM X-2406, NASA, December 1971.
[15]  Pera, R.J., Onat, E., Klees, G. W. and Tjonneland, E., “A method to estimate weight and dimensions of aircraft gas turbine engines." Vol. 1, Method of analysis nal report Technical Report NASA-CR-135170, NASA, 1977.
[16]  G. W. Klees and L. Fishbach, H., “Aircraft engine weight estimation method," Proceedings of the thirty-seventh annual conference of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers, number 1248. SAWE, May 1978.
[17]  Onat, E. and Tolle, F.F.,  “An extension of engine weight estimation techniques to compute engine production cost ,“Technical Report N62269-78-C-0286, Naval Air Development Center, 1979.
[18]  Hale, P.L., “A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines ,“Technical Report NASA-CR-168049, NASA - Garrett turbine engine company, 1982.
[19]  Tong, M.T., Halliwell, I. and Ghosn, L. J., “A computer code for gas turbine engine weight and disk life estimation, “Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol.126, No. 2, 2004, pp.265-270.
[20]  Tong, M. T. and Naylor, B. A., “An object-oriented computer code for aircraft engine weight estimation," In Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Vol. 1, 2008, pages 1-7.