Document Type : Research Note


1 M.Sc . University Complex of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology,Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, University Complex of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology,, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, University Complex of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology,, Tehran, Iran.

4 Ph.D. student, University Complex of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology,, Tehran, Iran.

5 PhD Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , Mashhad, Iran.


One of the leading challenges in the fabrication of natural fiber composites is the adhesion of the fibers to the matrix. Since improving the adhesion between the fibers and the matrix changes the mechanical properties of natural composites, fiber surface modification has been considered. In this study, the effect of adhesion and surface treatment of date fibers on improving mechanical properties (tension, bending, impact) was investigated. Surface treatment was performed on date palm fibers using two chemicals, sodium chloride, and sodium hydroxide. These fibers were modified in four groups with sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride, sodium chloride, then sodium hydroxide, and finally sodium hydroxide, then sodium chloride. By making different samples and performing standard mechanical tests (tensile, impact bending) and electron microscope (SEM) tests, thermal analysis (TGA), fiber tension, fiber extrusion from the matrix (Pull out) the effects of different groups on improving the adhesion and mechanical properties of composites was examined and verified. The results showed that the surface treatment fiber with sodium chloride showed more resistance against stretching, extrusion of the fiber from the matrix, and degradation due to temperature increase compared to the fiber without surface treatment and with surface treatment. Also, mechanical tests on composites showed an increase and improvement in tensile strength of samples reinforced with sodium hydroxide-modified fibers, and the highest flexural strength with sodium-chloride-modified fibers and a decrease in impact strength with surface treatment fibers in all four groups. ‌‌


Main Subjects

[1]   Jawaid, M.H.P.S. and Khalil, H.A., “Cellulosic/Synthetic Fibre Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites: A Review”, Carbohydr Polym., Vol. 86, No. 1, pp. 1-18, 2011.
[2]   Corbiere-Nicollier, T., Laban, B.G., Lundquist, L., Leterrier, Y., Manson, J.A., and Jolliet, O., “Life Cycle Assessment of Biofibres Replacing Glass Fibres as Reinforcement in Plastics”, Resour. Conserv. Recycl., Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 267-287, 2001.
[3]   Abrate, S., Impact on Composite Structures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2005.
[4]   Mahdavi, S., Kermanian, H., and Varshoei, A., “A Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Date Palm Fiber-Polyethylene Composite”, Bio Resources, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 2391-2403, 2010.
[5]   Shalwan, A. and Yousif, B., “Investigation on Interfacial Adhesion of Date Palm/Epoxy Using Fragmentation Technique”, Materials & Design, Vol. 53, pp. 928-937, 2014.
[6]   AL-Oqla, F.M., Alothman, O.Y., Jawaid, M., Sapuan, S.M., and Es- Saheb, M.H., “Processing and Properties of Date Palm Fibers and Its Composites”, In Biomass and Bioenergy, Springer International Publishing, New York, USA, 2014.
[7]   Al-Oqla, F.M. and Sapuan, S.M., “Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites in Industrial Applications: Feasibility of Date Palm Fibers for Sustainable Automotive Industry”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 66, pp. 347-354, 2014.
[8]   AlMaadeed, M.A., Kahraman, R., Noorunnisa Khanam, P., and Al-Maadeed, S., “Characterization of Untreated and Treated Male and Female Date Palm Leaves”, Materials and Design, Vol.43, pp. 526–531, 2013.
[9]   Amroune, S., Bezazi, A., Belaadi, A., Zhu, C., Scarpa, F., Rahatekar, S., and Imad, A., “Tensile Mechanical Properties and Surface Chemical Sensitivity of Technical Fibres from Date Palm Fruit Branches (Phoenix Dactylifera L.)”, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 71, pp. 95–106, 2015.
[10] Shalwan, A. and Yousif, B.F., “Investigation on Interfacial Adhesion of Date Palm/Epoxy Using Fragmentation Technique”, Materials and Design, Vol. 53, pp. 928–937, 2015.
[11] Senawi, R., Alauddin, S.M., Salleh, R.M., Rashid, S.R.A., and Shueb, M.I., “Effect of Chemical Treatments on Properties of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibers Biocomposites”, 2013 IEEE Business Engineering and Industrial Applications Colloquium (BEIAC), Langkawi, Malaysia, 2013.
[12] Maniruzzaman, M., Rahman, M.A., Gafur, M.A., Fabritius, H., and Raabe, D., “Modification of Pineapple Leaf Fibres and Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile onto Modified Fibers”, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 79-90, 2011.
[13] Husnil, Y.A., Ismojo, A., Handayani, A.S., Setiaji, D.A., and Chalid, M., “The Effect of Alkalization and Bleaching Treatment of Sorghum Fibre on the Crystallinity Index of Pp Composite”, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 509, 2019.
[14] Razali, N.A.M., Ya'acob, W.M.H.W., Rusdi, R.A.A., and Aziz, F.A., “Extraction of Rice Straw Alpha Cellulose Micro/Nano Fibres”, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 888, pp. 244-247, 2017.
[15] Manjula R., Raju N.V., Chakradhar R.P.S., and Johns J., “Effect of Thermal Aging and Chemical Treatment on Tensile Properties of Coir Fiber”, Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol. 15, pp. 112-21, 2018.
[16] Chandramohan, D. and Kumar, A.J., “Experimental Data on the Properties of Natural Fiber Particle Reinforced Polymer Composite Material”, Data in Brief, Vol.13, pp. 460-468, 2017.
[17] Sepe, R., Bollino, F., Boccarusso, L., and Caputo, F., “Influence of Chemical Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fiber Reinforced Composites”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 133, pp. 210-217, 2018.
[18] Singh, J.I.P., Sehijpal, S., and Dhawan, V., “Influence of Fiber Volume Fraction and Curing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute/Pla Green Composites”, Polymers and Polymer Composites, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 273-284, 2020.
[19] Sayeed, M.M.A., Sayem, A.S.M., and Haider, J., “Opportunities with Renewable Jute Fiber Composites to Reduce Eco-Impact of Nonrenewable Polymers”, Encyclopedia of Renewable and Sustainable Materials, Elsevier, pp. 810-821, 2020.
[20] Geranmayeh, A., Eslami-Farsani, R., and Zareei, Na., " Interlaminar Shear Strength and Tensile Properties of Environmentally-Friendly Fiber Metal Laminates Reinforced by Hybrid Basalt and Jute Fibers”, Polymer Testing, Vol. 75, pp. 205-212, 2019.
[21] Singh, J.I.P., Sehijpal, S., and Dhawan, V., “Effect of Alkali Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber-Reinforced Partially Biodegradable Green Composites Using Epoxy Resin Matrix”, Polymers and Polymer Composites, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 388-397, 2020.
[22] Tripathy, S., Dehury, J., and Mishra, D., “A Study on the Effect of Surface Treatment on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Date-Palm Stem Liber Embedded Epoxy Composites”, Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 115, 2016.
[23] Gholami, M., Ahmadi, M.S., Tavanaie, M.A., and Khajeh Mehrizi, M., “Mechanical Properties of Date Palm Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review”, Polymerization, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 83-94, 2017 (In Persian).
[24] Abdal-hay, A., Suardana, N.P.G., Jung, D.Y., Choi, K.-S. and Lim, J.K., “Effect of Diameters and Alkali Treatment on the Tensile Properties of Date Palm Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 1199-1206, 2009.
[25] Boukettaya, S., Al Seddique, W., Alawar, A., Daly, H.B., and Hammami, A., “Cooling Rate Effects on the Crystallization Kinetics of Polypropylene/Date Palm Fiber Composite Materials”, Sci. Eng. Compos. Mater, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 523–533, 2016.
[26] Nguyen, T.C., Ruksakulpiwat, C., and Ruksakulpiwat, Y., “Extraction of Cellulose Microfibrils from Cassava Pulp”, Key Engineering Materials Submitted, Vol. 723, pp 427-433, 2017.
[27] Pradeep, P. and Dhas, J.E.R., “Characterization of Chemical and Physical Properties of Palm Fibers”, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering: An International Journal (MSEJ), Vol. 2, No. 4, 2015.
[28] Alawar, A., Hamed, A.M., and Al-Kaabi, K., “Characterization of Treated Date Palm Tree Fiber as Composite Reinforcement”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 40, No. 7, pp. 601–606, 2009.