Document Type : Scientific extension

Author

Ph.D. Amin Police University and Police Aviation, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Various atmospheric phenomena are the main factor or at least a contributing factor in many aviation accidents. Various weather phenomena such as air temperature, visibility, present weather, clouds, pressure, wind affect aviation safety. Among these elements, the wind condition has the greatest impact on flight safety and mainly, in the landing and take-off stage. Accordingly, in this paper, the effects of wind elements on landing and take-off safety are studied. Examining the impact of different wind conditions on aircraft flight shows that the Crosswind is considered to be the most influential wind situation. Also, sudden and momentary changes in the wind can be dangerous for aircraft during landing and takeoff. ‌‌

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] Masoudian, A., Climate of Iran, Sharia Toos Publications, Mashhad, Iran, 2011 (In Persian).
[2] Alizadeh, A., Kamali, G., Mousavi, F., and Mousavi Baigi, M., Weather and climatology, 16rd Ed., Ferdowsi University Press, Mashhad, Iran, 2015 (In Persian).
 [3] Kaviani, M., Microclimatology, 5rd Ed., Organization for the Study and Compilation of University Humanities Books (Samat), Tehran, Iran, 2011 (In Persian).
[4] Love, G., Soares, A., and Puempel, H. “Climate Change, Climate Variability and Transportation”, Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 1, pp. 130–145, 2010.
[5] Williams, P. and Joshi, M. “Intensification of Winter Transatlantic Aviation Turbulence in Response to Climate Change”, Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, pp. 644–648, 2013.
[6] Irvine, E.A., Hoskins, B.J., Shine, K.P., Lunnon, R.W., and Froemming, C., “Characterizing North Atlantic Weather Patterns for Climate-Optimal Aircraft Routing”, Meteorological Applications, Vol. 20, pp 80-93, 2013.
[7] Burbidge, R. “Adapting European Airports to a Changing Climate”, Transport Research Arena, Vol. 14, pp 14-23, 2016.
[8] Shajiei, Sh., Maghsoudi, N., and Rahmani, A., “Investigation of the Effects of Horizontal Wind Shears in the Landing Phase on the Longitudinal Motion of the Aircraft and Its Role in Air Accidents”, 2rd Aviation Safety Conference, Aerospace Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, 2002 (In Persian).
[9] Ranjbar, M., and Moradi, A., “Determination of Aircraft Hazard Indicators against wind shear Phenomenon”, 3rd Aviation Safety Conference, Aerospace Research Institute and Aviation of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Homa), Tehran, Iran, 2005 (In Persian).
[10] Karimi, M., “Study of the Effect of Wind Direction and Speed of Maximum Atmospheric Levels in the City of Isfahan”, 4rd Aviation Safety Conference, Aerospace Research Institute and National Aviation Organization, Tehran, Iran, 2007 (In Persian).
[11] Saghaei, M., “Analysis of Meteorological Parameters and Its Relationship with Aviation Safety”, 3rd Aviation Safety Conference, Aerospace Research Institute and Aviation of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Homa), Tehran, Iran, 2005 (In Persian).
[12] Kumar, B., An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi, Indian, 2006.
[13] Borna, R., and Khalilnejad, M. “Study of the Role of Climate Elements in Aviation Accidents”, 2rd National Conference on General Aviation, Aerospace Research Institute, Ferdows, Iran, 2019 (In Persian).
[14] Thompson, R. and Perry, A., Applied Climatology Principles and Practice, Routledge, London, UK, 1997.
[15] Oveysi, Kh. and Hakimi, R., Planning and Design of Airport, Amir Kabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Publishing Center, Tehran, Iran, 2015 (In Persian).
[16] Saffarzadeh, M., Masoumi, G., and Nadimi, N., Planning and Design of Airport, 2rd Ed., Transportation Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, 2014 (In Persian).
[17] International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), “Annex 14: Aerodromes, Volume I, Aerodrome Design and Operations”, 5rd Ed., 2009.
[18] Sadraei, M., flight Mechanics, 4rd Ed., Tehran: Imam Hossein University, Printing and Publishing Institute, Tehran, Iran, 2017 (In Persian).
[19] Waldkhani, H., Azizaqli, M., Rezazadeh, P., Fatehi, M., Pourghfar, R., and Siyahatgar, M., A Set of Instructions for Codes and Methods of Surveillance of the Ground Surface (Synop), Meteorological Organization of Iran, Technical Deputy and Station Network, General Directorate of Meteorological Monitoring Network, Tehran, Iran, 2012 (In Persian).
[20] Sadraei, M., Stability and Flight Control, Ayandegan Publishing Cultural Institute, Tehran, Iran, 2009 (In Persian).
[21] Mohammadi, H., The Concepts and Tachnical Term of Climatology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, 2007 (In Persian).
[22] International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), “Annex 3: Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation”, 9rd Ed., 2016.
[23] Sanderson, J., Instrument/Commercial Manual, International Standard Book Number 0-88487-188-6, 10rd Ed., 1995.
[24] Sobhan, I., "Meteorology in flight", Sina Institute, 7rd Ed., 2010.
[25] Online Available at: “https://weatherstreet.com/we atherquestions/What_are_dust_devils.htm, accessed on 28/01/2021”.