Document Type : Scientific extension


1 Assistant professor. Space Transportation Research Institute, Iran Space Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor. Space Transportation Research Institute, Iran Space Research Center, Tehran, Iran.


Adhesives and adhesive joints have replaced conventional methods such as riveting, welding, and mechanical joints as a valuable way for assembling space structures, due to their significant reduction in spacecraft mass and also having optimum properties (high mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties, simultaneously, appropriate to the application). Space adhesives, in addition to having unique properties, have the ability to be used for a long time and are resistant to the space environment. These adhesives are used to bond similar structures (metal or composite) and metal / composite structures. In this research, an attempt has been made to introduce the types of adhesives, their production methods, and theire application. The space environment and its components such as energetic charged particles, solar electromagnetic radiation and atomic oxygen are introduced and finally the effect of the components on their properties and mechanisms of their destruction are discussed


Main Subjects

[1] M. M. Finckenor, "Materials for spacecraft," American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics2018.
[2] U. Khashaba, R. Othman, and I. M. Najjar, "Development and characterization of structural adhesives for aerospace industry with alumina nanoparticles under shear and thermo-mechanical impact loads," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 234, pp. 490-507, 2020.
[3] S. Dagras, J. Eck, C. Tonon, and D. Lavielle, "Adhesives in space environment," Handbook of adhesion technology. Cham: Springer, 2018.
[4] S. Budhe, M. Banea, and S. De Barros, "Bonded repair of composite structures in aerospace application: a review on environmental issues," Applied Adhesion Science, vol. 6, pp. 1-27, 2018.
[5] L.-H. Lee, "Adhesives, Sealants, and Coatings for Space and Harsh Environments," Adhesives, Sealants, and Coatings for Space and Harsh Environments, pp. 5-29, 1988.
[6] H.-r. Qi, D.-x. Shen, Y.-j. Jia, Y.-c. An, H. Wu, X.-y. Wei, et al., "Preparation and Properties of Electrospun Phenylethynyl— Terminated Polyimide Nano-Fibrous Membranes with Potential Applications as Solvent-Free and High-Temperature Resistant Adhesives for Harsh Environments," Nanomaterials, vol. 11, p. 1525, 2021.
[7] D. J. Dunn, Adhesives and sealants: technology, applications and markets: iSmithers Rapra Publishing, 2003.
[8] S. Zhang and D. Zhao, Aerospace materials handbook: CrC Press, 2016.
[9] L. F. da Silva, "Technology of mixed adhesive joints," in Hybrid adhesive joints, ed: Springer, 2010, pp. 283-309.
[10]C. Bhuvaneswari, S. S. Kale, G. Gouda, P. Jayapal, and K. Tamilmani, "Elastomers and adhesives for aerospace applications," in Aerospace Materials and Material Technologies, ed: Springer, 2017, pp. 563-586.
[11]Z. Ahmadi, "Nanostructured epoxy adhesives: A review," Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 135, pp. 449-453, 2019.
[12]S. Y. Park, W. J. Choi, C. H. Choi, and H. S. Choi, "The effect of curing temperature on thermal, physical and mechanical characteristics of two types of adhesives for aerospace structures," Journal of adhesion science and Technology, vol. 32, pp. 1200- 1223, 2018.
[13]D. A. Dillard, Advances in structural adhesive bonding: Elsevier, 2010.
[14]G. Blugan, G. Mata-Osoro, S. Fecht, J. Janczak-Rusch, and J. Kuebler, "Torsional shear strength of steel joined with high performance aerospace adhesives at cryogenic and elevated temperatures," Plos one, vol. 13, p. e0206981, 2018.
[15]S. Ebnesajjad, Handbook of adhesives and surface preparation: technology, applications and manufacturing: William Andrew, 2010.
[16]F. C. Campbell Jr, Manufacturing technology for aerospace structural materials: Elsevier, 2011.
[17]H. Morawetz, "Radiation physics and chemistry of polymers, FA Makhlis, Halsted Press, New York, 1975, 287 pp. $32.50," Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Letters Edition, vol. 13, pp. 635-636, 1975.
[18]A. Paillous, "Radiation damage to surface and structure materials," in The Behavior of Systems in the Space Environment, ed: Springer, 1993, pp. 383-405.
[19]D. Clegg and A. A. Collyer, "Irradiation effects on polymers," 1991.
[20]K. Monib, "The Use of Silicone Adhesives in Space Applications‖," Adhesives Magazine, vol. 28, 2003.
[21]J. Zimmermann, J. Weiland, M. Z. Sadeghi, A. Schiebahn, U. Reisgen, and K.-U. Schröder, "Simplified stiffness analysis for degraded single lap joints in the space sector– Comparative analytical and finite element analysis," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 234, pp. 1956- 1966, 2020.
[22]L. F. M. da Silva, A. Öchsner, and R. D. Adams, Handbook of adhesion technology vol. 1: Springer, 2011.
[23]L. Zhang, Z. Xu, Q. Wei, and S. He, "Effect of 200 keV proton irradiation on the properties of methyl silicone rubber," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 75, pp. 350-355, 2006.
[24]H. Jochem, V. Rejsek-Riba, E. Maerten, S. Remaury, S. Solé, G. Sierra, et al., "Effects of 400 keV electrons flux on two space grade silicone rubbers," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 141, pp. 189-194, 2013.
[25]A. Paillous and C. Pailler, "Degradation of multiply polymer-matrix composites induced by space environment," Composites, vol. 25, pp. 287-295, 1994.
[26]H. R. Fischer, C. Semprimoschnig, C. Mooney, T. Rohr, E. R. van Eck, and M. H. Verkuijlen, "Degradation mechanism of silicone glues under UV irradiation and options for designing materials with increased stability," Polymer degradation and stability, vol. 98, pp. 720-726, 2013.
[27]J. Marco, S. Remaury, and C. Tonon, "Eight years GEO ground testing of thermal control coatings," EADS Astriu, 2009.
[28]S. Siegel and T. Stewart, "Vacuum-ultraviolet photolysis of polydimethylsiloxane. Gas yields and energy transfer," The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 73, pp. 823-828, 1969.
[29] A. Roggero, "Analyse du vieillissement d'un adhésif silicone en environnement spatial: influence sur le comportement électrique," Université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse III, 2015.