Document Type : Scientific extension


Assistant Professor, Aerospace Research Institute, Ministry of Science Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Light is as an environmental factor affecting plant growth. So far, various light sources have been used to grow plants in closed systems and space studies. Traditional light sources have some problems and are not suitable for space research. The biggest problem of them is the need for the high energy source, power supply weight, and heat production. LED light spectra were designed to solve plant cultivation problems in space for the first time and are recently used in terrestrial research such as greenhouses and plant cultivation rooms. The LED spectra have different colors, but laboratory studies are needed to determine the plants' involvement for these spectra. In this study, LED light technology, effect of spectra on the growth, production of metabolites and optical receptors are investigated.


Main Subjects

  • [1] W. D. Fernando, "Plants: An international scientific open access journal to publish all facets of plants, their functions and interactions with the environment and other living organisms," Plants, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 1, 2012,

    [2] G. D. Massa, J. C. Emmerich, R. C. Morrow, C. M. Bourget, and C. A. Mitchell, "Plant-growth lighting for space life support: a review," Gravitational and space biology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 19-30, 2006,

    [3] B. Harvey and O. Zakutnyaya, Russian space probes: Scientific discoveries and future missions. Springer, 2011,

    [4] D. Porterfield, G. Neichitailo, A. Mashinski, and M. Musgrave, "Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: The early years 1960–2000," Advances in Space Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 183-193, 2003,

    [5] M. Loi, C. Paciolla, A. F. Logrieco, and G. Mulè, "Plant bioactive compounds in pre-and postharvest management for aflatoxins reduction," Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 11, p. 243, 2020,

    [6] A. S. A. Mishra, C. Nichkil, B. Jithender, "Applications of light emitting diodes for post-harvest quality management of fruits and vegetables," Agriculture & Food, vol. 1, pp. 404-408, 2019,

    [7] R. M. Wheeler, "A historical background of plant lighting: an introduction to the workshop," HortScience, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1942-1943, 2008,

    [8] E. Darko, P. Heydarizadeh, B. Schoefs, and M. R. Sabzalian, "Photosynthesis under artificial light: the shift in primary and secondary metabolism," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 369, no. 1640, p. 20130243, 2014,

    [9] P. Pinho, K. Jokinen, and L. Halonen, "Horticultural lighting–present and future challenges," Lighting Research & Technology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 427-437, 2012,

    [10]  J. A. Nelson and B. Bugbee, "Economic analysis of greenhouse lighting: light emitting diodes vs. high intensity discharge fixtures," PloS one, vol. 9, no. 6, p. e99010, 2014,

    [11]  S. Yano et al., "Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station," Advances in Space Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 780-788, 2013,

    [12]  R. Morrow, R. Remiker, M. Mischnick, L. Tuominen, M. Lee, and T. Crabb, "A low equivalent system mass plant growth unit for space exploration," SAE Technical Paper0148-7191, 2005,

    [13]  T. Ahmadi, L. Shabani, and M. R. Sabzalian, "Improvement in drought tolerance of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L. under the pre-treatment of LED lighting," Plant physiology and biochemistry, vol. 139, pp. 548-557, 2019,

    [14]  M. Staal, J. T. M. Elzenga, A. G. van Elk, H. B. Prins, and E. Van Volkenburgh, "Red and blue light-stimulated proton efflux by epidermal leaf cells of the Argenteum mutant of Pisum sativum," Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1213-1218, 1994,

    [15]  E. V. Volkenburgh, "Leaf expansion–an integrating plant behaviour," Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1463-1473, 1999,

    [16]  G. D. Goins, N. C. Yorio, M. M. Sanwo-Lewandowski, and C. S. Brown, "Life cycle experiments with Arabidopsis grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs)," Life Support & Biosphere Science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 143-149, 1998.

    [17]  H. H. Kim, R. M. Wheeler, J. C. Sager, G. Gains, and J. Naikane, "Evaluation of lettuce growth using supplemental green light with red and blue light-emitting diodes in a controlled environment-a review of research at Kennedy Space Center," in V International Symposium on Artificial Lighting in Horticulture 711, 2005,, pp. 111-120.

    [18]  S.-H. Lee, R. K. Tewari, E.-J. Hahn, and K.-Y. Paek, "Photon flux density and light quality induce changes in growth, stomatal development, photosynthesis and transpiration of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. plantlets," Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 90, pp. 141-151, 2007,

    [19]  B. C. Tripathy and C. S. Brown, "Root-shoot interaction in the greening of wheat seedlings grown under red light," Plant Physiology, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 407-411, 1995,

    [20]  J.-M. Brillouet et al., "The tannosome is an organelle forming condensed tannins in the chlorophyllous organs of Tracheophyta," Annals of Botany, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 1003-1014, 2013,

    [21]  S. Gao, X. Liu, Y. Liu, B. Cao, Z. Chen, and K. Xu, "Photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) grown under different LED wavelengths," BMC plant biology, vol. 20, pp. 1-12, 2020,

    [22]  O. Alrifai, X. Hao, R. Liu, Z. Lu, M. F. Marcone, and R. Tsao, "Amber, red and blue LEDs modulate phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in eight Cruciferous microgreens," Journal of Food Bioactives, vol. 11, 2020,

    [23]  J. M. Christie, L. Blackwood, J. Petersen, and S. Sullivan, "Plant flavoprotein photoreceptors," Plant and Cell Physiology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 401-413, 2015.

    [24]  K.-i. Shimazaki, M. Doi, S. M. Assmann, and T. Kinoshita, "Light regulation of stomatal movement," Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., vol. 58, pp. 219-247, 2007,

    [25]  H. Hassanpour and F. J. J. o. T. i. A. E. Mousavi, "Plant Growth Chamber for Space Studies," vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 45-53, 2017.

    [26]  I. Terashima, T. Fujita, T. Inoue, W. S. Chow, and R. Oguchi, "Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green," Plant and cell physiology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 684-697, 2009,

    [27]  G. D. Massa, R. M. Wheeler, R. C. Morrow, and H. G. Levine, "Growth chambers on the International Space Station for large plants," in VIII International Symposium on Light in Horticulture 1134, 2016,, pp. 215-222.