Document Type : Scientific extension


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Aerospace Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


: In the contemporary landscape, the utilization of multi-rotor drone technology has witnessed a notable upsurge across diverse academic, industrial, and commercial domains. These multifaceted systems have assumed pivotal roles encompassing surveillance, wireless network coverage, remote sensing, search and rescue operations, efficient package delivery, tele-medicine facilitation, security enforcement, monitoring, precision agriculture, traffic management, and infrastructure inspection, among others. The trajectory of technological advancement underscores the impending significance of intelligent quad-copters as a transformative force within the industry, promising to forge novel avenues and redefine conventional paradigms. In effect, this paradigm shift is poised to mitigate operational risks and financial outlays, thereby fostering heightened assimilation of these technological innovations. Projections underscore that drones' market penetration within the civil infrastructure sector is slated to culminate in an approximately $45 billion valuation by end of this decade. This discourse delves into an all-encompassing exploration of the manifold applications and associated challenges intrinsic to multi-rotor systems, with a particular emphasis on quad-copters, across research arenas and diverse industries. Furthermore, the discourse offers an incisive analysis of prevailing trends while shedding light on the contours of forthcoming developments in the utilization of these transformative devices.


Main Subjects

 [1] S. Hayat, E. Yanmaz and R. Muzaffar, "Survey on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Networks for Civil Applications: A Communication Viewpoint," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 2624-2661, 2016.
[2] L. Gupta, R. Jain and G. Vaszkun, "Survey of Important Issues in UAV Communication Networks," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 1123-1152, 2016.
[3] Y. Zeng, R. Zhang and T. J. Lim, "Wireless communications with unmanned aerial vehicles: opportunities and challenges," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 34-42, 2016.
[4] G. Chmaj and H. Selvaraj, "Distributed processing applications for UAV/Drones: a survey," Progress in Systems Engineering. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 366, p. 449–454, 2015.
[5] N. Hossein Motlagh, T. Taleb and O. Arouk, "Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles-Based Internet of Things Services: Comprehensive Survey and Future Perspectives," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 899-922, 2016.
[6] M. Mozaffari, W. Saad, M. Bennis, Y.-H. Nam and M. Debbah, "A tutorial on UAVs for wireless networks: Applications, challenges, and open problems," arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.00680, 2018.
[7] P. Doherty and P. Rudol, "A UAV Search and Rescue Scenario with Human Body Detection and Geolocalization," in Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
[8] W. Yuanda, L. Wenzhang and L. Jian, "Cooperative USV–UAV marine search and rescue with visual navigation and reinforcement learning-based control," ISA Transactions, pp. 222-235, 2023.
[9] M. Ruiz Estrada and I. Ndoma, "How Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVVs (or Drones) Can Help in Case of Natural Disasters Response and Humanitarian Relief Aid?," SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 1, 2017.
[10] M. Silvagni, A. Tonoli and M. Chinaberge, "Multipurpose UAV for search and rescue operations in mountain avalanche events," Natural Hazards and Risk, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18-33, 2017.
[11] P. Iob, L. Frau, P. Danieli, L. Olivieri and C. Bettanini, "Avalanche Rescue with Autonomous Drones," IEEE 7th International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace), pp. 319-324, 2020.
[12] J. Joern, "Examining the use of unmanned aerial systems and thermal infrared imaging for search and rescue efforts beneath snowpack (thesis)," University of Denver, Denver, 2015.
[13] D. Jo and Y. Kwon, "Development of Rescue Material Transport UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)," World Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 720-729, 2017
[14] M. L. Smith, "Regulating law enforcement's use of drones: The need for state legislation," Harv. J. on Legis, vol. 52, p. 423, 2015
[15] B. R. Jordan, "A birds-eye view of geology: The use of micro drones/UAVs in geologic fieldwork and education," GSA Today, vol. 25, no. 7, p. 50–52, 2015.
[16] S. Yazdannik, S. SaniSales, M. Tayefi, R. Esmaelzadeh Aval and M. Khazaee, "Integrating Second Order Sliding Mode Control and Anomaly Detection Using Auto- Encoder for Enhanced Safety and Reliability of Quadrotor UAVs," International Journal of Reliability Risk and Safety Theory and Application, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 107-116, 2023.
[17] B. Vergouw, H. Nagel, G. Bondt and B. Custers, "Drone Technology: Types, Payloads, Applications, Frequency Spectrum Issues and Future Developments," The Future of Drone Use, vol. 27, pp. 21-45, 2019.
[18] D. C. Macke Jr, Systems and image database resources for UAV search and rescue applications, Missouri: Missouri University of Science and Technology, 2013.
[19] M. Bejiga , A. Zeggada , A. Nouffidj and F. Melgani , "A Convolutional Neural Network Approach for Assisting Avalanche Search and Rescue Operations with UAV Imagery," Remote Sensing, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 100, 2017.
[20] P. Rudol and P. Doherty, "Human body detection and geolocalization for uav search and rescue missions using color and thermal imagery," IEEE Aerospace Conference, pp. 1-8, 2008.
[21] E. Tuyishimire, A. Bagula, S. Rekhis and N. Boudriga, "Cooperative data muling from ground sensors to base stations using UAVs," IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), pp. 35-41, 2017.
[22] M. Quaritsch, K. Kruggl and D. Wischounig-Strucl, "Networked UAVs as aerial sensor network for disaster management applications," Elektrotech. Inftech, vol. 127, p. 56–63, 2010.
[23] D. Olson and A. James, "Olson, Daniel, and James Anderson. "Review on unmanned aerial vehicles, remote sensors, imagery processing, and their applications in agriculture.," Agronomy Journal, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 971-992, 2021.
[24] K. Whitehead, B. Moorman and C. H. Hugenholtz, "Low-cost, on-demand aerial photogrammetry for glaciological measurement.," Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 7, no. 3, 2013.
[25] K. Whitehead and C. H. Hugenholtz, "Remote sensing of the environment with small unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), part 1: A review of progress and challenges," Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 69-85, 2014
[26] R. Austin, Unmanned aircraft systems: UAVS design, development and deployment, John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN: 978-0-470-05819-0
[27] J. Curry, J. Maslanik, G. Holland and J. Pinto, "Applications of Aerosondes in the Arctic," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 1855-1861, 2004.
[28] M. Madden, T. Jordan, D. Cotten, N. O'Hare and A. Pasqua, "The future of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for monitoring natural and cultural resources," in Proc Photogramm Week, 2015.
[29] W. Immerzeel, P. D. Kraaijenbrink, J. Shea and A. Shrestha, "High-resolution monitoring of Himalayan glacier dynamics using unmanned aerial vehicles," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 150, pp. 93-103, 2014
[30] N. Marwah, V. Kumar Singh, G. Siddharth Kashyap and S. Wazir, "An analysis of the robustness of UAV agriculture field coverage using multi-agent reinforcement learning.," International Journal of Information Technology, vol. 15, p. 2317–2327, 2023.
[31] D. Jones, "Power line inspection-a UAV concept," The IEE Forum on Autonomous Systems, p. 8, 2005.
[32] Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. Walker, R. Hayward and J. Zhang, "Towards automatic power line detection for a UAV surveillance system using pulse coupled neural filter and an improved Hough transform," Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 677-686, 2010.
[33] J. Larrauri, G. Sorrosal and M. González, "Automatic system for overhead power line inspection using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle—RELIFO project," in International conference on unmanned aircraft systems (ICUAS), IEEE, 2013.
[34] F. Mohamadi, "Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial system for monitoring oil and gas pipelines," United States patent US 8,880,241, 2014.
[35] C. Dinelli, J. Racette, M. Escarcega, S. Lotero and J. Gordon, "Configurations and Applications of Multi-Agent Hybrid Drone/Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Underground Environments: A Review," Drones, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 136, 2023
[36] Y. Huang, S. Thomson, W. Hoffmann, Y. Lan and B. Fritz, "Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicle technologies for agricultural production management," International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-10, 2013.
[37] W. Kazmi, M. Bisgaard, F. Garcia-Ruiz, K. D. Hansen and A. la Cour-Harbo, "Adaptive surveying and early treatment of crops with a team of autonomous vehicles," In Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Mobile Robots ECMR, pp. 253-258, 2011.
[38] V. Gonzalez-Dugo, P. Zarco-Tejada, E. Nicolás, P. Nortes, J. Alarcón, D. Intrigliolo and E. Fereres, "Using high resolution UAV thermal imagery to assess the variability in the water status of five fruit tree species within a commercial orchard," Precision Agriculture, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 660-678, 2013.
[39] F. Garcia-Ruiz, S. Sankaran, J. Maja, W. Lee, J. Rasmussen and R. Ehsani, "Comparison of two aerial imaging platforms for identification of Huanglongbing-infected citrus trees," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 1, no. 91, pp. 106-115, 2013.
[40] P. Mathur, R. Nielsen, R. Prasad and N. Prasad, "Data collection using miniature aerial vehicles in wireless sensor networks," IET Wireless Sensor Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 17-25, 2016.
[41] A. Srivastava and J. Prakash, "echniques, Answers, and Real-World UAV Implementations for Precision Farming," Wireless Personal Communications , vol. 131, p. 2715–2746, 2023.
[42] H. Mirsalari and E. DoDange, "Investigating the application of UAV in smart agriculture," in The 4th National Congress of Development and Promotion of Agricultural Engineering and Soil Sciences of Iran, Tehran, 2022.
[43] J. E. Hook, S. Kincheloe and W. I. Segar, Irrigation Scheduling for Corn–Why and How. National Corn Handbook, US Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2000.
[44] D. Pimentel, R. Zuniga and D. Morrison, "Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States," Ecological economics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 273-288, 2005.
[45] R. Calderón, J. A. Navas-Cortés, C. Lucena and P. J. Zarco-Tejada, "High-resolution airborne hyperspectral and thermal imagery for early detection of Verticillium wilt of olive using fluorescence, temperature and narrow-band spectral indices," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 139, pp. 231-245, 2013
[46] W. De-Cai, G. Zhang, P. Xian-Zhang, Z. Yu-Guo, Z. Ming-Song and W. Gai-Fen, "Mapping soil texture of a plain area using fuzzy-c-means clustering method based on land surface diurnal temperature difference," Pedosphere, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 394-403, 2012.
[47] D. Sullivan, J. Shaw, P. Mask, D. Rickman and E. Guertal, "Evaluation of multispectral data for rapid assessment of wheat straw residue cover," Soil Science Society of America Journal, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 2007-2013, 2004.
[48] F. Niglio, P. Comite, A. Cannas, A. Pirri and G. Tortora, "Preliminary Clinical Validation of a Drone-Based Delivery System in Urban Scenarios Using a Smart Capsule for Blood," Drones, vol. 6, no. 8, p. 195, 2022.
[49] M. Pachayappan and B. Sundarakani, "Drone delivery logistics model for on-demand hyperlocal market," International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, pp. 1-33, 2022.
[50] A. Kosovac, M. Šabić, E. Muharemović and E. Šimić, "Shipment delivery challenges using unmanned aerial vehicles," in First International Conference on Advances in Traffic and Communication Technology, 2022.
[51] Z. Jiang and Y. Chen, "Cooperative planning of multi-UAV logistics delivery by multi-graph reinforcement learning.," in InInternational Conference on Computer Application and Information Security, Wuhan, 2023. DOI: 10.1117/12.2671868
[52] A. Carrio, C. Sampedro, A. Rodriguez-Ramos and P. Campoy, "A Review of Deep Learning Methods and Applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," Machine Vision Sensors, vol. 2017, p. 13, 2017.
[53] H. Menouar, I. Guvenc, K. Akkaya, A. S. Uluagac, A. Kadri and A. Tuncer, "UAV-Enabled Intelligent Transportation Systems for the Smart City: Applications and Challenges," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 22-28, 2017.
[54] G. Guido, V. Gallelli, D. Rogano and A. Vitale, "Evaluating the accuracy of vehicle tracking data obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," International journal of transportation science and technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 136-151, 2016.
[55] M. Minea and C. Dumitrescu, "Urban Traffic Noise Analysis Using UAV-Based Array of Microphones," Sensors, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 1912, 2023.
[56] P. Bupe, R. Haddad and F. Rios-Gutierrez, "Relief and emergency communication network based on an autonomous decentralized UAV clustering network," in SoutheastCon, 2015.
[57] L. Kapustina, N. Izakova and E. Makovkina, "The global drone market: main development trends," in SHS Web of Conferences, 2021.
[58] D. Difa Aliya, F. Gruben and S. Mutmainah, "Market Development of Agriculture Drones in New Zealand and Singapore," Diponegoro Journal of Accounting , vol. 12, no. 2, 2023.
[59] M. Bevilacqua, D. Morelli and P. Uzan, "Striking the implied volatility of US drone companies," International Review of Financial Analysis, vol. 77, 2021.
[60] M. Ghanifar, M. Kamzan, M. Tayefi, "Adjust PID Controller Parameters with Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Intelligent Algorithms; Simulation and Comparison in Quadrotor," Journal of Technology in Aerospace Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 23-33, 2024. (in Persian).
[61] M. Safaei and M. Sepehri, "A Review Study on the Application of Drones in the Health Sector," in First International Conference on Management, Industrial Engineering, and Accounting, 1399. (in Persian).
[62] M. Mohammadian Semnani, M. A. Ataei, and M. Molajafary, "Application of Drones in Bridge Inspection," in Second International Conference on the Application of Advanced Materials and Construction in Industries, Tehran, 2022.( in Persian).
[63] F. Majidi, M. Sepehri, and H. Saeedi, "Review of Articles and Proposed Framework for Drone Delivery of Drugs and Vaccines to Rural and Remote Areas," in Second International Conference on Optimization of Production and Service Systems, Rudsar, 2022. (in Persian).
[64] M. Saber, A. Abedini, and M. Saadat Seresht, "Traffic Management System Based on Photogrammetry of Drones," in First National Conference on Urban Planning, Tehran, 1393. (in Persian).
[65] H. Mirsalar and M. Mirsalar, "Investigation of Drone Application in Smart Agriculture," in Eighth International Congress on Agricultural Development and Environment with Emphasis on the United Nations Development Program, Tehran, 2023. (in Persian).