نوع مقاله : علمی- ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه کنترل ، دانشکده مهندسی برق، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران .

2 استادیار، گروه کنترل، دانشکده مهندسی برق، دانشگاه علم وصنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هواپیماهای بدون سرنشین بال‌زن با توجه به توانایی پرواز بدون صدا در سرعت‌های کم و قابلیت مانور زیاد در معرض توجه قرار گرفته‌اند. در این مقاله، با بررسی تاریخچة این موضوع و اهمیـت آن در زمینة علوم مهندسی، چگونگی بدست‌ آمدن نیروهای مورد نیاز برآی پرواز در بال زدن شرح داده می‌شود. پس از آن، با بررسی جوانب مختلف و ارائة معادلات، مدل مناسبی به منظور دست­یابی به اهداف کنترلی بدست می‌آید. با توجه به پیچیدگی سینماتیکی و دینامیکی بال‌زن­ها، مدل به دست آمده غیرخطی و متناوب می باشد. پایداری بال‌زن­ها که اغلب با استفاده از روش­های متوسط­گیری و نظریة فلوکه بررسی می­شود، شرح داده شده ­است. چالش‌های کنترلی مطرح شده و مناسب‌ترین رویکردهای کنترلی برای کنترل پرواز بال‌زن انتخاب می‌شود. با توجه به محدودیت در وزن ربات بال‌زن، انتخاب قطعات الکترونیکی نیز به عنوان یک چالش بررسی خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

An Overview of Modeling, Stability, and Control of Flapping Robots

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sorayya Leyci 1
  • javad poshtan 2

1 M.Sc. Student. Control Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology. Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor. Control Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology. Tehran.Iran.

چکیده [English]

Flapping drones have been the focus of attention for various reasons, such as the ability to fly scilently at low speeds and also high maneuverability. This article describes the history of flapping robots and their importance in engineering and how to obtain the forces required to fly. Then, by examining different aspects and presenting the equations, a suitable model is proposed to achieve the control objectives. Due to the kinematic and dynamic complexity, the obtained model is non-linear and periodic. The stability of the robot, which has been often investigated through the averaging and Floquet theory, is also described. In order to stabilize the robot, useful methods presented taking into account the possible challenges in controlling the altitude and attitude. Considering the weight limitations of the robot, selection of electronic components was also considered as a challenge. ‌‌

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ornithopter
  • Flapping Flight
  • Stability
  • Flight Control
  • Non-linear Time Periodic System
  • Floquet Theory
[1] Aditya, K. and Malolan, V., “Investigation of Strouhal Number Effect on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle", The 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, USA, 2007.
[2] Rose, C.J., Mahmoudieh, P., and Fearing, R.S., “Modeling and Control of an Ornithopter for Diving", The Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE/RSJ International Conference on IEEE, Daejeon, South Korea, 2016.
[3] Benedict, M., Sudhakar, K., and Issac, K.K., “Aeroelastic Design and Manufacture of an Efficient Ornithopter Wing”, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai, 2004.
[4] Bisplinghoff, R.L., Ashley, H., and Halfman, R.L., Aeroelasticity, Courier Corporation, Mineola, New York, USA, 2013.
[5] Combes, S.A. and Daniel, T.L., “Into Thin Air: Contributions of Aerodynamic and Inertial-elastic Forces to Wing Bending in the Hawkmoth Manduca Sexta”, Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 206, No. 17, pp. 2999-3006, 2003.
[6] Torres, J.Z., Davila, J., and Lozano, R., “Attitude and Altitude Control on Board of an Ornithopter”, The International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), Arlington, VA, USA, 2016.
[7] Shigeoka, K.S., “Velocity and Altitude Control of an Ornithopter Micro Aerial Vehicle”, Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, 2007.
[8] Becerra, V.M., “Flight Dynamics and System Identification for Modern Feedback Control: Avian-inspired Robots”, Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 119, No. 1212, pp. 247-248, 2015.
[9] Greenfield, D., “Opinion by Design-Seagulls and Systems Design Innovation-festo Has Developed the SmartBird, an Extremely Agile, Robotic Bird, and Through Its Development, the Company Gained Transferrable Knowledge about Hybrid Drive Technology”, Design News-Los Angeles, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 13-20, 2011.
[10[ Paranjape, A.A., Dorothy, M.R., Chung, S.J., and Lee, K.D., “A Flight Mechanics-centric Review of Bird-scale Flapping Flight”, International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 267-281, 2012.
[11[ Folkertsma, G.A., Straatman, W., Nijenhuis, N., Venner, C.H., and Stramigioli, S., “Robird: A Robotic Bird of Prey”, IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 22-29, 2017.
[12[ Shyy, W., Lian, Y., Tang, J., Viieru, D., and Liu, H., “Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers", Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, 2007.
[13] Chandrasekaran, B.K., “Design of an Adaptive Flight Controller for a Bird-like Flapping Wing Aircraft”, Doctoral dissertation, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas, USA, 2017.
[14] Krashanitsa, R.Y., Silin, D., Shkarayev, S.V., and Abate, G., “Flight Dynamics of a Flapping-wing Air Vehicle”, International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 35-49, 2009.
[15] Grauer, J., “Modeling and System Identification of an Ornithopter Flight Dynamics Model", Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Aerospace Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, 2012.
[16] Grauer, J., Ulrich, E., Hubbard, J.E., Pines, D., and Humbert, J.S., “Testing and System Identification of an Ornithopter in Longitudinal Flight”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 660-667, 2011.
[17] Rose, C. and Fearing, R.S., “Flight Simulation of an Ornithopter”, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2013-60, 2013.
[18] Rashid, T., “The Flight Dynamics of a Full-scale Ornithopter”, Doctoral dissertation, Department of Aerospace Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 1995.
[19] Phlips, P.J., East, R.A., and Pratt, N.H., “An Unsteady Lifting Line Theory of Flapping Wings with Application to the Forward Flight of Birds”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 112, pp.97-125, 1981.
[20] DeLaurier, J.D., “An Aerodynamic Model for Flapping-wing Flight". The Aeronautical Journal, Vol. 97, No. 964, pp. 125-130, 1993.
[21] Chalia, S. and Bharti, M. K., “A Review on Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings", 2016.
[22] Malik, M.A. and Ahmad, F., “Effect of Different Design Parameters on Lift, Thrust, and Drag of an Ornithopter”, World Congress on Engineering, London, UK, 2010.
[23] Grauer, J.A. and Hubbard, J.E., “Inertial Measurements from Flight Data of a Flapping-wing Ornithopter”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 1, 326-331, 2009.
[24] Bolender, M.A., “Rigid Multi-Body Equations-of-Motion for Flapping Wing MAVs using Kane’s Equations”, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2009.
[25] Xiong, Y., and Sun, M., “Dynamic Flight Stability of a Bumblebee in Forward Flight”, Acta Mechanica Sinica, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp.25-36, 2008.
[26] Tan, L.T. and Pellegrino, S., “Stiffness Design of Spring Back Reflectors”, The 43rd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Denver, CO, USA, 2002.
[27] Dietl, J.M., and Garcia, E., “Stability in Ornithopter Longitudinal Flight Dynamics”, Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 1157-1163, 2008.
[28] Lust, K., “Improved Numerical Floquet Multipliers”, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 11, No. 09, pp. 2389-2410, 2001.
[29] Orlowski, C.T., and Girard, A.R., “Dynamics, Stability, and Control Analyses of Flapping Wing Micro-air Mehicles”, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 51, pp. 18-30, 2012.
[30] Leonard, B., “Flapping Wing Flight Dynamic Modeling,” M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA, 2011.
[31] Guckenheimer, J., and Holmes, P., Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields, Springer Science and Business Media, New York, USA, 2013.
[32] Peters, D.A. and He, C.J., “Finite State Induced Flow Models. II-Three-dimensional Rotor Disk”, Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 323-333, 1995.
[33] Thomas, A.L., and Taylor, G.K., “Flight Dynamics I. Stability in Gliding Flight”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 212, No. 3, pp. 399-424, 2001.
[34] Heathcote, S., Martin, D., and Gursul, I., “Flexible Flapping Airfoil Propulsion at Zero Freestream Velocity”, AIAA journal, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 2196-2204, 2004.
[35] Steck, J.E., Rokhsaz, K., Pesonen, U., and Duerksen, N., “An Advanced Flight Control System for General Aviation Application”, No. 2004-01-1807, SAE Technical Paper, 2004.
[36] He, W., Meng, T., He, X., and Sun, C., “Iterative Learning Control for a Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle Under Distributed Disturbances”, IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2018.
[37] He, W., Yan, Z., and Sun, C., “Trajectory Tracking Control of a Flapping Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle via Neural Networks”, The International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics (ICARM), Macau, China, 2016.
[38] Clawson, T.S., Ferrari, S., Fuller, S.B., and Wood, R.J., “Spiking Neural Network (SNN) Control of a Flapping Insect-scale Robot”, The 55th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 2016.
[39] Aswini, N., Krishna Kumar, E., and Uma, S.V., “UAV and Obstacle Sensing Techniques–a Perspective", International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 32-46, 2018.