گیاهان و درک جاذبه

نوع مقاله : علمی- ترویجی

نویسنده

مرکز زیست فضا و محیط زیست، پژوهشگاه هوافضا، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران

چکیده

گیاهان مکانیسم های متفاوتی برای درک محرک های محیطی و پاسخ به آن را دارا می باشند. جاذبه یکی از مهمترین محرک های محیطی است که جهت رشد گیاه را کنترل می نماید و گیاهان قادرند به طور دائم با آن سازگاری یابند. جاذبه گرایی را می توان به چهار مرحله تقسیم نمود: 1) درک بردار جاذبه توسط سلول های اختصاصی؛ 2) تبدیل محرک مکانیکی به یک سیگنال بیوشیمیایی 3) انتقال سیگنال بیوشیمیایی از سلول های اختصاصی درک جاذبه به منطقه پاسخ به جاذبه؛ و 4) رشد افتراقی منطقه پاسخ به جاذبه برای تعیین جهت رشد با توجه به بردار جاذبه. تاکنون مدل های مختلفی برای تبدیل محرک فیزیکی جاذبه به یک سیگنال بیوشیمیایی پیشنهاد شده است. از مهمترین این مدل ها می توان به مدل استاتولیت- نشاسته اشاره نمود. مطالعه حاضر به اختصار به نحوه سازگاری گیاهان به گرانش و همچنین به شرح مدل های مختلف پاسخ به جاذبه در گیاهان می پردازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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